Non Invasive Ventilator: Everything To Know

A ventilator produces and delivers artificial oxygen to the lungs. This machine helps patients with breathing difficulties. It usually connects to the nose of the patient through a pipe-shaped structure. This mechanical ventilation process is helping millions of people across the globe, especially after the COVID-19 outbreak. We have two kinds of ventilators available; invasive ventilation and non invasive ventilator.

An invasive ventilator delivers oxygen to the lungs via a tube that inserts into the throat or nose of the patient. This tube goes into the windpipe for delivering the oxygen. Noninvasive ventilation is ventilatory support administration that does not utilize artificial invasive airways.

It is important to learn about these ventilator types because COVID-19 cases are still on the rise even after almost three years of outbreak. In this article, we will share all the important information about noninvasive ventilation.

non invasive ventilator

When to Use a Non Invasive Ventilator?

You will need the support of a non invasive ventilator when you feel difficulties in breathing in:

  • COPD: Long-run diseases, such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis in which you experience excessive coughing, breathing difficulty, and increased respiratory rate.
  • Pulmonary Edema: Build-up of fluid in your lungs because of cardiac disease.
  • Weakness of respiratory muscle.
  • Sleep apnea: Breathing cessation in the sleep.
  • Ventilator-related pneumonia.

If you experience the above-mentioned respiratory issues or conditions, you will need noninvasive ventilation. However, it is still important to talk to your doctor about your condition and ask for his recommendation.

Benefits of Using a Noninvasive Ventilator

There are various advantages that you will get with noninvasive ventilation. It will reduce the pressure of work on your lungs and you will not require tracheostomy or endotracheal intubation. Consequently, you will be able to avoid their complications. It will minimize the chances of infection and improve the survival chances of the patient. Another benefit of noninvasive ventilation is that your stay at the hospital will also be reduced. You will be able to continue your activities, such as eating, taking medications, and talking. Noninvasive ventilation also doesn’t need hospital supervision.

Noninvasive Ventilation Types

We have two noninvasive ventilation types available, such as positive-pressure ventilation and negative-pressure ventilation. Both come with unique characteristics and are appropriate for different situations. Let’s take a look at these two.

Positive-Pressure Ventilation: This type of noninvasive ventilation moves the air towards the lungs. There are two kinds of positive-pressure ventilation in sleep apnea. These are BiPAP (Bilevel Positive-Pressure), and CPAP (Continuous Positive-Airway-Pressure). You should talk to your doctor about what type is right for you.

Negative-Pressure Ventilation: This type of noninvasive ventilation draws air into the patient’s lungs through expansion and contraction of the chest. This process relies on a machine that wraps up the patient’s chest. This ventilation method is rarely in use these days.

Working of Noninvasive Ventilation

Positive-pressure noninvasive ventilation is the most common type of ventilation currently in use. It assists in delivering the oxygen into the lungs via a tightly fitted mask around the head or face in these ways:

  • The non invasive ventilator moves oxygen through the oxygen cylinder to the airways of the patient via a head/face mask.
  • The adjustments of the ventilator settings allow regular blow of air into airways of the patient and stop.
  • The cycle repeats, helping the patient to inhale oxygen in his body while expelling the carbon dioxide (CO2) out of their body.

So, this is how noninvasive ventilation works.

Set-Up of Noninvasive Ventilation

Your doctor may provide you medicines for lowering the anxiety or sedatives for helping you drowsy. Go through the following facts for a better understanding.

  • Your position will be a degree angle of 30-90 in upright in the best.
  • A head mask or face mask will cover your head tightly or the entire face.
  • A strap connects to the face mask for maintaining the right position.
  • The non invasive ventilator will attach to an oxygen cylinder.
  • The face mask connects to the noninvasive ventilator. The doctor will adjust it on appropriate oxygen pressure.

Now that we have learned enough about the noninvasive ventilator, we must also know if noninvasive ventilation has some complications.

Noninvasive Ventilation Complications

Yes, noninvasive ventilation can also have a few complications. Most complications would be mild and they will occur only with its use in the long run. These mild complications include eye pain and irritation, Face mask attachment ulcers, and nasal sinuses congestion. However, there can also be a few other complications that include:

  • Stomach bloating
  • Hypotension
  • Aspiration

The blood pressure can go low and the food may be sucked into the lungs of the patient. Apart from these, there are no other complications of noninvasive ventilation.

Modes of Ventilation

There are so many modes of ventilation. However, we have two main categories; assisted ventilation and controlled ventilation. Let’s take a quick look at these two.

1. Controlled Ventilation Modes

A controlled ventilation mode is suitable for patients who do not have spontaneous respiration. Moreover, health professionals control all ventilation. Patients can either be administered or sedated with the curare during the period of ventilation. Controlled modes include:

Volumetric Ventilation or Volume-Controlled (VC):

It determines the air volume insufflated to a patient throughout the inspiratory stage. It makes sure that patients get the fixed volume of tidal. Expiration triggers when the tidal volume administers. However, this ventilation mode isn’t appropriate for noninvasive ventilation because it doesn’t deal with leaks.

Barometric Ventilation or PCV (pressure-controlled ventilation):

It determines the air pressure that insufflates the patient’s lungs throughout the inspiratory stage. The monitoring of capnography and spirometry is essential.

non invasive ventilator

2. Assisted Ventilation Modes

Assisted (Partial) ventilation modes are appropriate for patients with inadequate spontaneous ventilation (respiratory distress). These modes are also suitable for people who are going through respiratory withdrawal. Pressure support with spontaneous cycles is sourced to patients. We also have SIMV ventilation in which doctors trigger spontaneous breath while the patient tries to breathe.

These were the two modes of ventilation that doctors use for patients according to their respiratory condition. We hope you now understand the basics of a non invasive ventilator and how does it works and helps patients.

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